A mosque in Turkmenistan

The area now known as Turkmenistan claims a history of conquest by other peoples and nations, the most recent being the Soviet Union in the twentieth century. Following its independence in 1991, a single-party system was adopted and President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov presided over a unique personality cult that masked widespread unemployment, poverty, and human rights abuses until his sudden death in December 2006.

Embassy of Turkmenistan in the United States

The United States Embassy in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan

Maps of Turkmenistan

Human Rights Watch: Turkmenistan