Courses of Instruction
ART (ART-Fine Arts)
111 Visual Fundamentals (3)
Introduction to organization of two-dimensional picture plane using principles of design and color theory. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
121, 122 Drawing I, II (3,3)
Introduction to the basic problems of drawing. ART 121 is prerequisite for ART 122. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
147 Beginning Art Photography (1)
Basic 35 mm camera operation, black and white darkroom technique and theories of photographic composition.
155 Beginning Drawing (1)
Basic drawing instruction to non-art majors. Exploration of line, value, media measurement, and composition.
160 Beginning Ceramics (1)
Basic ceramic construction, composition, and firing techniques.
165 Beginning Metals (1)
Introductory metalsmithing and design for the beginning student.
170 Basic Woodworking (1)
Basic course to provide foundation exercises and instruction in the use of woodworking tools and machinery.
171 Visual Fundamentals—3-D (3)
Basic foundation studio course dealing with methods, materials, principals of organization and elements of design applied to the third dimension. Prerequisite: Art 111.
MPF 181 Concepts in Art (3)
Introduction to visual and thematic concepts as applied to art in various cultures and historical periods. IIA.
182 Experiencing the Arts (1)
Introduces discussion of art, architecture, interior design, music, theatre, and dance. Writings and discussion are in response to attendance at arts events. Repeatable.
MPF 183 Images of America (3)
This course will investigate the power and influence of visual art imagery, either about, targeted to, or made by diverse segments of historic and contemporary American society and how this imagery has helped or hindered our coming together as a diverse nation. Students will actively question the adequacy of stereotypes as a basis for evaluation, decision, or action through the investigation of such underlying concepts as how visual components help define a culture, the "decoding" of cultural codes, how the idea of taste and aesthetics plays out in the way we see ourselves and others, and the way semiotics and the use of symbols filters our meaning making capabilities. Offered only on the Middletown campus.
MPF 185 Asian Art in Context: India and Southeast Asia (3)
Historical survey of art in India and Southeast Asia. This region witnessed the origins and development of two major world religions, Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as the brilliant manifestation of a third, Islam. Emphasis placed on understanding cultural foundations of Hindu, Buddhist, and Islamic art. IIA, B, IIIB, H. CAS-B.
MPF, MPT 186 History of Asian Art: China, Korea, and Japan (3)
Introduction to major artistic traditions of China, Korea, and Japan. Emphasis placed on understanding the cultural foundations of Bronze Age art in East Asia, the impact of Buddhism in the region, and later painting and ceramic traditions. IIA, B, IIIB, H. CAS-B.
MPF 187 History of Western Art: Prehistoric - Gothic (3)
Historical survey of Western art, including development of concepts necessary for analysis and appreciation of great works of art. IIA, B, H. CAS-B.
MPF 188 History of Western Art: Renaissance - Modern (3)
Historical survey of Western art, including development of concepts necessary for analysis and appreciation of great works of art. IIA, B, H. CAS-B.
MPF, MPT 189 History of Western Dress (3)
Provides an overview of Western dress from ancient times to the present. Emphasis placed on the social and cultural factors that have influenced the evolution of dress for both men and women. IIA, B, H.
190.E Introduction to the Profession of Art Education (1)
Seminar involving orientation to the field of art education as a career with special emphasis on art teacher preparation and licensure. Planned observation.
201 Art and the Art Teacher (3)
Study of student learning, planning, and instructional strategies with emphasis on subject matter and professional teaching skills. Planned observation and participation in classroom.
221, 222 Drawing III, IV (3, 3)
Intermediate-level drawing problems. Prerequisite: ART 121, 122. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
231 Painting I (3)
Introduction to the use of oil and/or waterbase media with emphasis on pictorial structure. Prerequisite: ART 111, 171, and 121-122, or permission of instructor. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
241 Printmaking I (3)
Studio introduction to printmaking media and processes with emphasis on intaglio and relief printing such as etching and woodcut. Composition and concepts for pictorial communication. Prerequisite: ART 111, 121, 122, 171, or permission of instructor.
251 Graphic Design 1: Typography (3)
Introductory course in the graphic design program that concentrates on design principles relating specifically to typography. Basic Macintosh skills, photomechanical skills, and typographic terminology are introduced. Prerequisite: ART 111, 121, 122, 171, or permission of instructor.
252 Graphic Design 2: Imagery and Communication (3)
Covers visual and symbolic communication, including generation of visual symbols, graphic simplification, communication of content through form, and visual metaphor. Visual problem-solving skills and concepts are addressed. Further development of technical skills. Prerequisite: ART 251.
257 Photography (3)
Introduction to basic 35 mm camera operation, black and white darkroom technique and aesthetic approaches to art of photography. Prerequisite: ART 111,121,122, or 171, or permission of instructor.
MPT 261 Ceramics I (3)
Exploring plastic materials in three-dimensional form using coil, slab, pinch, and extruded clay and wheel throwing as an introductory experience in clay. Traditional and contemporary approaches explored. Several decorative methods and firings extend perception of the entire ceramic process. Prerequisite: ART 111, 121, 122, 171, or permission of instructor. Materials fee. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
MPT 264 Jewelry Design and Metals I (3)
Exploration of three-dimensional forms in nonferrous metals. Introduction to basic metalworking processes and techniques of the jeweler and silversmith. Prerequisite: ART 111, 121, 122, 171, or permission of instructor. Materials fee. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
MPT 271 Sculpture I (3)
Studio course to provide the beginning sculpture student with a foundation in critical aesthetic thinking and of methods, techniques, and materials used in the process of making sculpture. Prerequisite: ART 111, 121, 122, 171, or permission of instructor. Materials fee. 3 Lab., includes Lec.
MPF 279 Buddhism and Culture: China and Japan (4)
Deals with East Asia and time span of more than 15 centuries (from 4th through 20th) . Provides historical overview of the development of Buddhism in China and Japan with a clear definition of theoretical framework of this religion. Investigates nature and extent of Buddhist influence on the imagination of intellectuals and lifestyle of the populace. All cultural phenomena, thematically treated, are interpreted within historical, social, economic, and institutional contexts, and in contrast to those of the West. Cross-listed with JPN 279 and REL 279. IIIB, H. CAS-A-B. Offered infrequently.
MPF, MPT 280 Art and Politics: The Body in Art (3)
Explores relationship between art and politics as manifested in images and monuments of different time periods. Emphasis is not on chronological development, but on the shifting relationship between art and politics, particularly on issues of gender, class, and violence. IIA, B, H. CAS-B.
285 Seminar in Writing and Research in Art and Architectural History (3)
This is a course for beginning art history majors and others interested in a critical approach to reading texts, researching and talking about works of art. Students will learn to read texts to determine the point of view of the author, to analyze how the author has determined the scope or focus of the text, how he or she has conducted and documented his or her own research, what influences and methods he or she responds to, and how successful the author is in realizing his or her own goals. In addition, students will learn to differentiate types of texts–surveys, monographs, catalogues, specialist studies of themes, cultures, artists, etc.–and to differentiate credible sources (both textual and Web-based) from less credible sources.
303 Practicum in Art Education (3)
Supervised participation in Saturday Art School, with the development of proficiency in planning of instruction, effective communication, classroom and program assessment, and professional development. Prerequisite: ART 401.
308.E The Art Experience for Early Childhood (3)
Philosophy, curriculum content, visual learning development, and evaluation. Creative laboratory experiences concerning art activities appropriate for various stages of early childhood development. Meets state licensure requirements in visual art for early childhood majors. 1 Lec. 2 Lab.
321, 322 Drawing V, VI (3; maximum 6)
Drawing problems requiring advanced conceptual and technical skills. Prerequisite: six semester hours in ART 221, 222. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
331, 332 Painting II, III (3, 3)
Painting problems using both representational and abstract approaches in various painting media. Prerequisite: ART 231. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
340 Internship (1-3, maximum 6)
Pre-professional practical experience for qualified students. Must be arranged through a supervisory department faculty member.
341, 342 Printmaking II, III (3, 3)
Lithography and intaglio techniques. Prerequisite: ART 241. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
350 Illustration (3)
Emphasizes development of drawing and painting techniques significant to the creation of illustrations for publication and related pragmatic conditions. Addresses problem analysis, visual research, media and space constraints, cost and time factors as well as personal stylistic growth in this specialized discipline. Lecture and slides supplement studio work. Prerequisite: junior and senior art majors, ART 221, 222, 231, 251.
351 Graphic Design 3: Design Systems (3)
Synthesizes concepts learned in typography and image and communication through the development of visual programs for sequential viewing. Ideas of sequence and series, organization, and typographic hierarchy are addressed through poster, brochure, and book design. More complex Macintosh skills addressed. Prerequisite: ART 251, 252, and successful completion of portfolio review.
352 Graphic Design 4: Identity and Information Systems (3)
Through the generation of marks, symbols, logotypes and their applications, discusses the practical and aesthetic concerns surrounding corporate identity systems. More complex problem-solving skills explored. Prerequisite: ART 351.
354 Electronic Imagery (3)
Provides a focus on software programs used in the development of imagery to strengthen understanding of computer technology. Although design aesthetics are discussed, the emphasis is on mastering software programs. Prerequisite: ART 251, 252, and successful completion of portfolio review.
357, 358 Photography II, III (3,3)
Continued development of aesthetic, conceptual and technical traditions in photography. Emphasis on black and white printing skills and personal expression. Introduction to color printing. Prerequisite: ART 257.
MPT 361 Ceramics II (3)
Pottery, design, forming, wheel throwing, hand building, decoration, glazing, and firing. Prerequisite: ART 111, 121, 122, 171, 261. Materials fee. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
MPT 362 Ceramics III (3)
Pottery and sculpture design, forming, wheel throwing, decoration, glazing, and firing. Clay and glaze materials and formulations covered. Prerequisite: ART 261, 361 or permission of instructor. Materials fee. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
MPT 364 Jewelry Design and Metals II (3)
Creative designing of two- and three-dimensional forms for contemporary jewelry and holloware. Development of basic metals processes: fabrication, raising, stone-setting, forging, casting. Prerequisite: ART 264. Materials fee. 3 Lab includes Lec.
MPT 365 Jewelry Design and Metals III (3)
Intermediate problems in design and process for jewelry, holloware and flatware. Prerequisite: ART 364. Materials fee. 3 Lab includes Lec.
MPT 371 Sculpture II (3)
Studio problems based on concepts applied to various three-dimensional methods, techniques, and materials. Prerequisite: ART 271. Materials fee. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
MPT 372 Sculpture III (3)
Intermediate studio problems based on concepts applied to three-dimensional methods, techniques, and materials. Beginning emphasis on individual direction. Prerequisite: ART 371. Materials fee. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
MPT 381 Greek and Roman Architecture (3)
Architecture in the Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman world; development and usage of Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders in the Greek world and the Roman response and adaptation. Various architectural forms, both public and private. Offered infrequently.
MPT 382 Greek and Roman Sculpture (3)
Sculpture in the Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman world. Emphasis on the development of the human figure in the Greek world with attention to sculptures of Pheidias, Praxiteles, Scopas, and Lysippos. The Roman response to the Greek Canons is evaluated and development of Roman portrait sculpture is critically reviewed. Offered infrequently.
MPT 383 Greek and Roman Painting (3)
Greek and Roman painting; examination of the development of Greek vase painting with special emphasis on red and black figure vase painting; examination of tomb paintings of Etruscan civilization with study of Roman painting from Pompeii and Herculaneum with attention to styles, perspective, methods of painting, and uses of color. Offered infrequently.
390 Supplemental Problems (1-3; maximum 6)
Supplemental problems in any one of the department's 300-level studio areas. Prerequisite: concurrent enrollment in related 300-level course and permission of instructor.
401/501 Theories and Methods of Art Instruction (3)
Philosophy, psychology, curriculum development, methodology, and evaluation of artistic growth and development. Emphasis on student learning, planning, instructional strategies, communication, and assessment. Lecture-discussion course for students majoring in art education. Prerequisite: ART 201 and art education major.
404/504 Art Appreciation in the School Program (3)
Emphasizes acquisition of knowledge about planning for instruction based on knowledge of aesthetics, art history, art criticism, students, and curriculum goals and models. Prerequisite: junior standing in art education program.
421/521, 422/522 Drawing VII, VIII (3; maximum 6)
Application of concepts, techniques, and design through various painting media. Emphasis on personalized statement by the student. Designed to complete the logical sequence of drawing offerings. Prerequisite: ART 321, 322. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
431/531, 432/532 Painting IV, V (3, 3)
Application of concepts, techniques, and composition through various painting media. Emphasis on a personalized statement by the student. Prerequisite: ART 331, 332. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
441/541, 442/542 Printmaking IV, V (3, 3)
Emphasis on personal investigation in intaglio, lithography, silkscreen, or relief processes. Prerequisite: ART 341, 342. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
450 Special Topics Seminars (3)
Rotating series of topics (e.g.,Web design) identified by the faculty offered once a year to meet the changing needs and interest of students and faculty. Prerequisite: ART 351, 352, 354.
451 Graphic Design 5: Three Dimensional Design (3)
Complements the two dimensional skills learned in earlier course work with three dimensional concepts. Through the exploration of such projects as environmental systems, signage, and packaging, special emphasis is placed on the various design considerations involved in three dimensions. Prerequisite: ART 351, 352, 354.
MPC 452 Senior Thesis Project (3)
Individual projects proposed, researched, and executed. Enables students to learn how to define and limit a project, choose the best format for a particular communication goal, organize and schedule time, and set and meet interim goals. Prerequisite: ART 451.
MPC 453 Advertising Practice (Laws, Hall & Associates) (4)
Interdisciplinary practicum for students with graphic design concentrations. Work with marketing and mass communication majors to create complete advertising campaign. Teams engage in research, market analysis, design development, art and video production, and client presentation. Competing campaigns evaluated by actual client. Prerequisite: advanced standing and permission of instructor only.
454 Hiestand Design (3)
A small group of students selected through an interview process to run this functioning design studio. Students interact with clients and are responsible for “real-life” jobs, production, and execution. Prerequisite: advanced standing and permission of instructor only.
455/555 20th Century Design and Culture (3)
Overview of the history and cultural context of contemporary design, showing the influence of design as a mediator between industry and the consumer. Focuses on modern European and American design, including a variety of two- and three-dimensional design disciplines.
456 Professional Practice, Production and Portfolio Techniques (3)
Includes revision of existing pieces to professional standards and the execution of work to complete the professional portfolio. Photographing of work, design, craft, organization, and presentation of the portfolio discussed. Covers topics related to the business of graphic design and the production knowledge necessary to work in today's profession. Prerequisite: ART 351, 352, 354.
457/557 Photography IV (3)
Experimental techniques with emphasis on advanced technical skills and aesthetics. Prerequisite: ART 357, 358.
458/558 Photography V (3)
Emphasis on technical proficiency in color printing, hand-coloring, and personal expression in individualized projects. Prerequisite: ART 457/557.
461/561 Ceramics IV (3)
Advanced problems in ceramic design emphasizing individual creativity and requiring technical proficiency. Prerequisite: nine semester hours in ceramics. Materials fee. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
462/562 Ceramics V (3)
Advanced problems in ceramic design emphasizing individual creativity and requiring technical proficiency. Students must complete a professional portfolio of work. Prerequisite: 12 hours in ceramics. Materials fee. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
464/564 Jewelry Design and Metals IV (3)
Advanced design and technical problems in jewelry, holloware, flatware, and/or other areas of individual interest. Emphasis on personal expression and research, portfolio development. Prerequisite: ART 365. Materials fee. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
MPT 466/566 Early Christian, Byzantine, and Islamic Art (3)
Survey of the art and culture of Early Christian, Byzantine, and Islamic worlds from the beginning of Christian art in the 2nd century to ca. 1400. Emphasizes points of contact, interaction, and conflict between the three cultures. Prerequisite: advanced standing or permission of instructor.
MPT 467/567 Early Medieval Art (3)
Covers the art and culture of western Europe from 4th through 11th centuries. This period sees the conversion of Europe to Christianity, as well as the birth of a sense of national identity in a number of countries. A major theme of this course is the way in which art and architecture are used as a vehicle for both processes. Prerequisite: advanced standing or permission of the instructor.
MPT 468/568 Romanesque Art (3)
Explores the definition, characteristics, and development of the Romanesque style in Europe between the 10th and 13th centuries, a period dominated by political conquests, pilgrimages, and crusades. Attention paid to the different meanings and functions associated with the Romanesque in different contexts, times, and geographical areas. Prerequisite: advanced standing or permission of the instructor.
MPT 469/569 Gothic Art (3)
Surveys the culture of Europe between the years 1100 and 1500, the “Gothic era.” Also surveys how art and architecture were used to reflect and construct a social system within western Europe and a world system through which Europe viewed, and wished to be viewed by, the rest of the Gothic world. Prerequisite: advanced standing or permission of the instructor.
471/571 Sculpture IV (3)
Advanced problems in sculpture requiring skill with sculpture processes and ability to interpret ideas three-dimensionally. Prerequisite: ART 372. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
472/572 Sculpture V (3)
Advanced problems in sculpture requiring skill with sculpture processes and ability to interpret ideas three-dimensionally. Emphasis on creative personal direction, professional portfolio, and research. Prerequisite: ART 471/571. Materials fee. 3 Lab. includes Lec.
MPT 476/576 Origins of Art in Europe and the Ancient Near East (3)
Art and architecture of Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic periods in Europe and British Isles and ancient art of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Aegean (ca. 40,000 BC - 500 BC) . Prerequisite: advanced standing or permission of instructor.
MPT 478/578 Chinese Painting History (3)
Study of major painters and genres from the earliest painting to the modern period in China. Prerequisite: ART 186 or permission of instructor.
MPT 479/579 Japanese Painting and Prints (3)
Study of major painters and genres in the history of Japanese art, including Buddhist painting and Japanese print. Prerequisite: ART 185 or permission of instructor.
480 Seminar in Art History (3; maximum 6)
Special studies in the history of art centered upon a designated topic or area of study which may vary with each offering. Prerequisite: advanced standing in art or permission of instructor.
MPT 480.M/580.M Special Topics in Medieval Art (3)
Special topics to explore individual issues or problems in medieval art. Offered infrequently.
MPT 480.W/580.W Women in Medieval Art (3)
Examines the relationship between women and art in the medieval period. Includes women artists, images of women in art, and women as patrons, consumers, and viewers of art.
MPT 480.X/580.X Women in Art: Renaissance to Modern (3)
Examines various cultural periods from Renaissance to the present to determine attitudes of women and about women as they are reflected and embodied in the visual arts. Offered infrequently.
MPT 481/581 Italian Renaissance (3)
Art of the Renaissance in Italy (ca. 1250-1500). Prerequisite: advanced standing or permission of instructor. Offered infrequently.
482/582 Northern Renaissance (3)
Art of the Renaissance in Northern Europe (1350-1600). Prerequisite: advanced standing or permission of instructor.
483/583 Baroque Art (3)
Art of the baroque and 18th century periods (ca. 1600-1800) in Spain, Italy, and Northern Europe. Prerequisite: advanced standing or permission of instructor.
484/584 High Renaissance and Mannerist Art (3)
Art of the High Renaissance and Mannerist periods (ca. 1500 - 1600) in Italy and Northern Europe. Prerequisite: advanced standing or permission of instructor.
MPT 485/585 Art of the Early 19th Century (3)
Painting and sculpture in Europe and the United States from late 18th century to mid-19th century with special emphasis on neoclassicism and romanticism. Prerequisite: advanced standing or permission of instructor.
MPT 486/586 Art of the Late 19th Century (3)
Painting and sculpture in Western Europe and the United States from mid-19th century to the turn of the century with special emphasis on realism, impressionism, and post-impressionism. Prerequisite: advanced standing or permission of instructor.
MPT 487/587 Art of the Early 20th Century (3)
Development of modernist painting and sculpture in Western Europe and the United States from 1900 to 1945. Prerequisite: advanced standing or permission of instructor.
488/588 American Art (3)
Painting and sculpture in the United States with emphasis on 19th and 20th centuries. Prerequisite: advanced standing or permission of instructor. Offered infrequently.
MPT 489/589 Contemporary Art (3)
Painting, sculpture, architecture, and allied arts from 1945 through post-modernism. Prerequisite: advanced standing or permission of instructor.
MPC 492 Professional Artist's Portfolio and Exhibition Experience (3)
Supervised development of individual professional artist's portfolio and participation in a group or solo gallery exhibition. Periodic scheduled meetings with peers and faculty mentors in the individual studio areas. With permission of instructor, students who have completed a focus sequence in one of the vertical studio offerings may be permitted to enroll in this studio Capstone. Prerequisite: senior standing in one of these studio concentrations: ceramics, metals, photography, painting, printmaking, or sculpture; must be taken concurrently with a 400-level studio.
MPC 497 Museums as Interpreters of Culture (3)
Explores the rich texture of forces, disciplines and factors that contribute to the idea of the museum as an interpreter of cultures. Examines the interplay of influences that affect and determine a museum's identity. These influences include the perspectives of curators, collectors and donors; scholars; artists; specific cultural groups; the sociopolitical environment; the art market and diverse audience sectors. Prerequisite: completion of a Thematic Sequence in the arts or humanities or permission of instructor.
MPC 498/598 History and Methods in Art and Architectural History (3)
Examines history, varieties, and purposes of art historical methodologies. Acquaints students with significant literature in the history of art and architecture so that they can understand these disciplines and develop their own methodological points of view. Intended as professional training for the major in history of art and architecture, but could be useful to any liberal education program. Prerequisite: advanced standing in art or architecture or permission of instructor.
600 Advanced Research Problems (1-3; maximum 6)
Research in art and art literature. Prerequisite: graduate standing in art.
601 Teaching Assistant Seminar (3)
Includes prevalent issues, concerns, and problems confronting art teacher in college studio setting. For students with little or no experience teaching art; provides insight into teaching. Prerequisite: admission to Department of Art graduate program.
603 Development of Philosophical Foundations in Art Education (3)
Critical evaluation of the development of philosophical trends and theories in art education as they emerged in the U.S. and abroad. Prerequisite: graduate standing in art education program. Summer only.
604 Research in Art Education (3)
Review of research, a research study project, and writing based upon current problems in art education. Prerequisite: graduate standing in art education program.
605 Current Issues in Art Education (3)
Analytic-synthetic survey of current issues in art education with extensive concentration on pertinent literature in the field. Prerequisite: graduate standing in art education program.
606 Graduate Seminar in Art Education (3)
Intensive study of specific problems concerning art education at both elementary and secondary levels. Prerequisite: graduate standing with licensure in art or permission of instructor. Summer only.
607 Independent Reading in Art Education (1-4; maximum 12)
Planned reading in art education as approved by graduate adviser. Prerequisite: graduate standing in art education program.
620 Graduate Drawing (3; maximum 12)
Professionally oriented studio drawing problems emphasizing personal interpretation. Prerequisite: graduate standing in art.
630 Graduate Painting (3-6; maximum 36)
Application of advanced techniques and pictorial concepts to problems in painting directed toward individual professional performance. Appropriate research and related studio work. Prerequisite: graduate standing in studio art.
640 Graduate Printmaking (3-6; maximum 36)
Research and related laboratory work in fine print media. Advanced study in intaglio, relief, and planographic media. Prerequisite: graduate standing in studio art.
660 Graduate Ceramics (3-6; maximum 36)
Individual and directed studio problems in ceramics stressing professional orientation and personal interpretation. Prerequisite: graduate standing in studio art. Materials fee.
664 Graduate Jewelry Design and Metals (3-6; maximum 36)
Provides qualified graduate student with intensive study in metal craftsmanship as an art form. Prerequisite: graduate standing in studio art.
670 Graduate Sculpture (3-6; maximum 36)
Individual advanced problems in sculpture. Prerequisite: graduate standing in studio art.
680 Graduate Seminar in Art History (3; maximum 9)
Special studies in the history of art centered upon a designated topic or area of study which may vary with each offering. Prerequisite: graduate standing in art or permission of instructor.
690 Special Problems (1-3; maximum 18)
Individual studio problems for graduate art student. Prerequisite: graduate standing in art.
700 Thesis (1-12; minimum required: 6 for M.A., 9 for M.F.A.; maximum 18).
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