Chicago Style Citations

General info:

  • Chicago Style allows writers to choose from two systems for documenting citations: the Author-Date system or the Notes-Bibliography
  • The Author-Date system is popular in fields relating to the sciences. When you are directly quoting from a work, the Author-Date system uses in-text citations that include the author, year of publication, and the page number.  Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name, followed by the date of publication in parentheses.  If only one direct quote is used, place the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

Example (one quote): According to Bibb (2012), “The writing center has come a long way since its inception and, with increasing scholarly research, has been the testing ground for new theory, Praxis, and media innovations” (101). 

 

If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

Example (no author in the signal phrase): It was reported that the writing center “has been the testing ground for new theory, Praxis, and media innovations" (Bibb 2012, 101).

  • The Notes-Bibliography system is frequently used in the humanities. When referencing a work, the Notes-Bibliography system uses footnotes. Place a superscripted note number after the quote.
Example: Bibb reported that the writing center “has been the testing ground for new theory, praxis, and media innovations”[1]. 

 In the footer, following a corresponding number, include the author’s name, title, publisher and year in parentheses (for books), and page number. For additional uses of the source, notes should be shortened to document only the author and page number.

Example Footnote (first use): 1. Bethany Bibb, “Bringing Balance to the Table: Comprehensive Writing Instruction in the Tutoring Session,” The Writing Center 32, no. 1 (2012), 101.

Example Footnote (subsequent uses): 4. Bibb, 104.

 Source Lists:

  • Both the Author-Date system and the Notes-Bibliography system require a comprehensive list of sources at the end of your paper. This is labeled “References” in the Author-Date system and “Bibliography” in the Notes-Bibliography system. In both systems, citations follow this basic format:

 

Example (book):

Last name, First name. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year.

 

Example (journal article):

Last name, First name, Second Author and Third Author. “Title of Article.” Journal Name #, no. # (Date): pg.–pg. DOI.

  • All bibliography entries should be single-spaced, with two blank lines separating the title from the first citation and one blank line separating subsequent citations. Citations should be listed in alphabetical order according to the first word and include a hanging indent.

 

For additional examples of in-text citations, footnotes, and source lists, see Purdue OWL online or visit www.chicagomanualofstyle.org.