Historical and Current Perspectives on School Psychology
Prior to the 1950s, there were few school psychologists in the public schools. School psychologists employed prior to 1950 typically worked as psychological examiners. Their primary role was to administer psychological tests to identify children who needed special education class placements and those ineligible for public school attendance because of their disabilities.
In the 1950s, developments in the field of psychology gave impetus to the growth of the discipline of school psychology. There was increased recognition of the importance of the childhood years as contributing to the mental health of the eventual adult. This heightened awareness of the mental health needs of children along with increasing school enrollments created a demand for psychologists in the schools. In the 1950s, school psychologists began to function as both psychological examiners and mental health consultants in the schools.
In 1954, the APA sponsored a conference to explore the roles, qualifications and training of school psychologists. The "Thayer Conference" was organized in recognition of the shortage of well-trained psychologists to work in the schools. The Thayer conference marked the emergence of school psychology as a unique discipline devoted to the application of psychological knowledge to the problems of schools and school children.
In the 1960s and 1970s, developments in the field of special education gave further impetus to the growth of school psychology. Court cases filed on behalf of children with disabilities determined that all children have a right to a public education, no matter how severe their disabilities.
Congress passed the Education of All Handicapped Children Act in 1975 (P.L. 94-142). This law provided funds to states to ensure a free and appropriate education to all children with disabilities. As a result of this law, subsequent amendments, and civil rights legislation, each state had to develop a plan to assure that every child with disabilities received special education and related services in conformance with an individualized education program. Children had to be assessed on the basis of non-discriminatory assessment and evaluation procedures, and provided an individualized education program in the least restrictive setting feasible.
School psychologists are an important member of the multidisciplinary committee involved in assessment and program planning to assure all children receive an appropriate education.
The Miami University School Psychology Program began in the 1960's. At that time, the Master of Science Degree program was the terminal degree for professional preparation. In 1980, the Ohio Board of Regents approved the Specialist Degree Program in School Psychology that was designed to exceed the minimal requirements for state certification as a school psychologist.
The Education Specialist Degree (Ed.S.) was not conceived as an intermediate degree on the path to a doctorate, but rather as the professional degree in school psychology as advanced by the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) and the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP).
The program meets the Standards for Graduate Preparation of School Psychologists set forth by the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP, 2020) and views these standards as an integrated part of the program’s general training objectives.
NASP's 2020 Practice Model domains of practice include:
- data-based decision making
- consultation and collaboration
- academic interventions and instructional supports
- mental and behavioral health services and interventions
- school-wide practices to promote learning
- services to promote safe and supportive schools
- family, school, and community collaboration
- equitable practices for diverse student populations
- research and evidence-based practice
- legal, ethical, and professional practice
The Miami University School Psychology Program seeks to prepare graduates to function as competent practitioners with these 10 competencies, ready to provide school psychology services at universal, targeted, and intensive levels of service delivery.
Our students actively attend State and National conferences. Departmental support as well as funding from the Graduate School may be available, especially if the student(s) in question are presenting at the conference.
Interested students should ask a faculty member, the program coordinator, or Department Chair for more information.
The program counts hundreds of graduates who span the continent providing school psychological services. Many of the graduates are now in positions of administration, superintendents, principals, directors of psychological services, and university professors. Yearly communication occurs with graduates and the program sponsors periodic reunions on campus in conjunction with our Spring EDP Colloquium series and/or off-campus during national or state conferences and conventions.